General Outcome 2

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, print and other media texts.

Students use a variety of strategies and cueing systems as they interact with oral, print and other media texts. They preview, ask questions and set purposes. Students attend to the ideas being presented, make and confirm predictions and inferences, and monitor their understanding. As they interact with texts, students respond by reflecting, creating, analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating. Successful learners adapt these strategies as they construct meaning from a variety of oral, print and other media texts.

Making meaning of oral, print and other media texts is fundamental to English language arts. Through these texts, students experience a variety of situations, people and cultures, and learn about themselves. Oral, print and other media texts allow for multiple interpretations. Students can respond personally to texts, by relating them to their prior knowledge, to their feelings and experiences, and to other texts. Through personal response, students explore and form values and beliefs. They respond critically to texts, by making interpretations and evaluating ideas, forms and techniques.

Students enhance their comprehension of and response to oral, print and other media texts through learning experiences in all the general outcomes. Exploratory talk and writing, for example, strengthen student understanding and evaluation of texts. Their appreciation of literary texts provides students with a range of topics and encourages them to experiment with a variety of forms in their own communication. Responding to oral, print and other media texts provides students with new insights.

It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

2.1 Use Strategies and Cues
Use prior knowledge

ELA 8

  • use strategies to supplement and extend prior knowledge and experiences when interpreting new ideas and information
  • use knowledge of authors, forms and genres, developed during previous reading, to direct and extend reading experiences

ELA 9

  • discuss how interpretations of the same text might vary, according to the prior knowledge and experiences of various readers
  • use previous reading experiences, personal experiences and prior knowledge as a basis for reflecting on and interpreting ideas encountered in texts

Use comprehension strategies

ELA 8

  • enhance understanding by paraphrasing main ideas and supporting details, and by rereading and discussing relevant passages
  • monitor understanding; skim, scan or read slowly and carefully, as appropriate, to enhance comprehension
  • take notes, make outlines and use such strategies as read, recite, review to comprehend and remember ideas and information

ELA 9

  • identify explicit and implicit ideas and information in texts; listen and respond to various interpretations of the same text
  • select appropriate reading rate and strategies for comprehending texts less closely connected to prior knowledge and personal experiences
  • preview complex texts as to their intent, content and structure, and use this information to set a purpose and select strategies for reading

Use textual cues

ELA 8

  • identify and use visual and textual cues in reference materials, such as catalogues, databases, web sites, thesauri and writers’ handbooks, to access information effectively and efficiently
  • identify and use structural features of a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as newspapers, magazines, instruction booklets, advertisements and schedules, encountered in everyday life to access ideas and information and to read with purpose

ELA 9

  • use knowledge of visual and textual cues and structural features when skimming and scanning various print and other media texts to locate relevant information effectively and efficiently
  • analyze and discuss how the structural features of informational materials, such as textbooks, bibliographies, databases, catalogues, web sites, commercials and newscasts, enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of communication

Use phonics and structural analysis

ELA 8

  • choose and use strategies for word identification, vocabulary development and spelling that either build on specific strengths or address areas for improvement

ELA 9

  • apply and explain effective procedures for identifying and comprehending words in context; adjust procedures according to the purpose for reading and the complexity of the texts

Use references

ELA 8

  • use a thesaurus to extend vocabulary and locate appropriate words that express particular aspects of meaning

ELA 9

  • use reference materials, including a writer’s handbook, to verify correct usage, address uncertainties and solve problems that arise

2.2 Respond to Texts
Experience various texts

ELA 8

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as magazine articles, diaries, drama, poetry, Internet passages, fantasy, nonfiction, advertisements and photographs
  • write and represent narratives from other points of view
  • expect that there is more than one interpretation for oral, print and other media texts, and discuss other points of view
  • explain connections between own interpretation and information in texts, and infer how texts will influence others
  • make connections between biographical information about authors, illustrators, storytellers and filmmakers and their texts

ELA 9

  • experience oral, print and other media texts from a variety of cultural traditions and genres, such as essays, broadcast advertisements, novels, poetry, documentaries, films, electronic magazines and realistic fiction
  • identify and discuss how timeless themes are developed in a variety of oral, print and other media texts
  • consider historical context when developing own points of view or interpretations of oral, print and other media texts
  • compare and contrast own life situation with themes of oral, print and other media texts
  • express the themes of oral, print or other media texts in different forms or genres
  • consider peers’ interpretations of oral, print and other media texts, referring to the texts for supporting or contradicting evidence

Construct meaning from texts

ELA 8

  • interpret the choices and motives of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts, and examine how they relate to self and others
  • identify and describe characters’ attributes and motivations, using evidence from the text and personal experiences
  • discuss various ways characters are developed and the reasons for and plausibility of character change
  • compare two similar oral, print or other media texts by considering the characters, plot, conflicts and main ideas

ELA 9

  • analyze how the choices and motives of characters portrayed in oral, print and other media texts provide insight into those of self and others
  • identify and discuss theme and point of view in oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss and explain various interpretations of the same oral, print or other media text
  • relate the themes, emotions and experiences portrayed in oral, print and other media texts to issues of personal interest or significance

Appreciate the artistry of texts

ELA 8

  • discuss how techniques, such as word choice, balance, camera angles, line and framing, communicate meaning and enhance effects in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify ways that characters can be developed, and discuss how character, plot and setting are interconnected and mutually supportive
  • identify and discuss how word choice and order, figurative language, plot, setting and character work together to create mood and tone

ELA 9

  • discuss how techniques, such as irony, symbolism, perspective and proportion, communicate meaning and enhance effect in oral, print and other media texts
  • discuss character development in terms of consistency of behaviour and plausibility of change
  • describe how theme, dominant impression and mood are developed and sustained through choices in language use and the interrelationship of plot, setting and character
  • identify features that define particular oral, print and other media texts; discuss differences in style and their effects on content and audience impression

2.3 Understand Forms, Elements and Techniques
Understand forms and genres

ELA 8

  • discuss how the choice of form or genre of oral, print and other media texts is appropriate to purpose and audience
  • compare the usefulness of different types of media texts

ELA 9

  • explain the relationships between purposes and characteristics of various forms and genres of oral, print and other media texts
  • evaluate the effectiveness of different types of media texts for presenting ideas and information

Understand techniques and elements

ELA 8

  • distinguish theme from topic or main idea in oral, print and other media texts
  • identify and explain characters’ qualities and motivations, by considering their words and actions, their interactions with other characters and the author’ s or narrator’ s perspective
  • compare and contrast the different perspectives provided by first and third person narration
  • summarize the content of media texts, and discuss the choices made in planning and producing them

ELA 9

  • compare the development of character, plot and theme in two oral, print or other media texts
  • evaluate the effectiveness of oral, print and other media texts, considering the believability of plot and setting, the credibility of characters, and the development and resolution of conflict
  • compare a main character in one text to the main character in another text from a different era, genre or medium
  • identify ways that a change in narrator might affect the overall meaning of oral, print and other media texts
  • summarize the content of media texts, and suggest alternative treatments

Experiment with language

ELA 8

  • identify creative uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as commercials, rock videos and magazines; explain how imagery and figurative language, such as hyperbole, create tone and mood

ELA 9

  • analyze creative uses of language and visuals in popular culture, such as advertisements, electronic magazines and the Internet; recognize how imagery and figurative language, such as metaphor, create a dominant impression, mood and tone

2.4 Create Original Text
Generate ideas

ELA 8

  • create oral, print and other media texts related to issues encountered in texts and in own life

ELA 9

  • generalize from own experience to create oral, print and other media texts on a theme

Elaborate on the expression of ideas

ELA 8

  • retell oral, print and other media texts from different points of view

ELA 9

  • create oral, print and other media texts on common literary themes

Structure texts

ELA 8

  • create oral, print and other media texts with both main and minor characters
  • choose forms or genres of oral, print or other media texts for the particular effects they will have on audiences and purposes

ELA 9

  • create oral, print and other media texts that interrelate plot, setting and character, and reveal the significance of the action
  • create oral, print and other media texts that include main and minor characters, and show how the main character develops and changes as a result of the action and events
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