General Outcome 3

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to manage ideas and information.

The ability to manage information is important in school, in the workplace, on the land, and for personal growth and satisfaction. Students learn to access and communicate information through language arts. Viewing and representing take on new importance in managing ideas and information; through these language arts, students learn to enhance the clarity and effectiveness of communication. Students learn to interpret and analyze texts, considering such factors as author, purpose, audience and source. They learn to define the need for information, ask questions, and gather and evaluate information.

Students enhance their ability to manage ideas and information in collaboration with others. For example, they benefit from opportunities to engage in exploratory language to focus their research and determine the kind and amount of information needed to accomplish their various purposes, both artistic and functional. Students communicate ideas and information more effectively when they select forms and conventions appropriate to specific purposes, content and audiences. The use of technology enhances student opportunities to access, create and communicate ideas and information. Skill in managing ideas and exchanging information helps students encourage, support and work with others.

It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

3.1 Plan and Focus
Focus attention

ELA 8

  • experiment with several ways to focus a topic, and select a form appropriate to audience and purpose
  • identify and trace the development of arguments, opinions or points of view in oral, print and other media texts

ELA 9

  • synthesize ideas and information from a variety of sources to develop own opinions, points of view and general impressions
  • assess adequacy, accuracy, detail and appropriateness of oral, print and other media texts to support or further develop arguments, opinions or points of view

Determine information needs
ELA 8

  • select the most appropriate information sources for topic, audience, purpose and form

ELA 9

  • select types and sources of information to achieve an effective balance between researched information and own ideas

Plan to gather information
ELA 8

  • choose a plan to access, gather and record information, according to self-selected parameters

ELA 9

  • select information sources that will provide effective support, convincing argument or unique perspectives

3.2 Select and Process
Use a variety of sources
ELA 8

  • obtain information from a variety of sources, such as artifacts, debates, forums, biographies, autobiographies, surveys, documentaries, films, CDROMs, charts and tables, when conducting research

ELA 9

  • obtain information reflecting multiple perspectives from a variety of sources, such as expository essays, graphs, diagrams, online catalogues, periodical indices, film libraries, electronic databases and the Internet, when conducting research

Access information
ELA 8

  • obtain information from a variety of sources, such as artifacts, debates, forums, biographies, autobiographies, surveys, documentaries, films, CDROMs, charts and tables, when conducting research
  • expand and use a variety of tools and text features, such as subtitles, margin notes, key words, electronic searches, previews, reviews, visual effects and sound effects, to access information
  • record key ideas and information from oral, print and other media texts, avoiding overuse of direct quotations
  • adjust rate of reading or viewing to suit purpose and density of information in print or other media texts

ELA 9

  • expand and use a variety of tools and text features, such as organizational patterns of texts, page layouts, font styles and sizes, colour and voiceovers, to access information
  • distinguish between primary and secondary sources, and determine the usefulness of each for research purposes
  • follow up on cited references to locate additional information

Evaluate sources
ELA 8

  • develop and use criteria for evaluating the usefulness, currency and reliability of information for a particular research project

ELA 9

  • evaluate sources for currency, reliability and possible bias of information for a particular research project

3.3 Organize, Record and Evaluate
Organize information
ELA 8

  • organize ideas and information creatively, as well as logically, to develop a comparison or chronology, or to show a cause–effect relationship
  • organize ideas and information to establish an overall impression or point of view in oral, print and other media texts

ELA 9

  • organize ideas and information by developing and selecting appropriate categories and organizational structures
  • balance all sections of oral, print and other media texts and ensure sentences, paragraphs and key ideas are linked throughout
  • develop coherence by relating all key ideas to the overall purpose of the oral, print or other media text

Record information
ELA 8

  • make notes in point form, summarizing major ideas and supporting details; reference sources
  • discard information that is irrelevant for audience, purpose, form or point of view
  • use a consistent and approved format to give credit for quoted and paraphrased ideas and information

ELA 9

  • use own words to summarize and record information in a variety of forms; paraphrase and/or quote relevant facts and opinions; reference sources
  • select and record ideas and information that will support an opinion or point of view, appeal to the audience, and suit the tone and length of the chosen form of oral, print or other media text
  • choose specific vocabulary, and use conventions accurately and effectively to enhance credibility

Evaluate information
ELA 8

  • evaluate the relevance and importance of gathered information; address information gaps
  • incorporate new information with prior knowledge and experiences to develop new understanding

ELA 9

  • evaluate usefulness, relevance and completeness of gathered information; address information gaps
  • reflect on new understanding and its value to self and others

3.4 Share and Review
Share ideas and information
ELA 8

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as interviews, minilessons and documentaries
  • integrate appropriate visual, print and/or other media to inform and engage the audience

ELA 9

  • communicate ideas and information in a variety of oral, print and other media texts, such as media scripts, multimedia presentations, panel discussions and articles
  • integrate appropriate visual, print and/or other media to reinforce overall impression or point of view and engage the audience

Review research process
ELA 8

  • assess the research process, and consider alternative ways of achieving research goals

ELA 9

  • reflect on the research process, identifying areas of strength and ways to improve further research activities
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