General Outcome 4

Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to enhance the clarity and artistry of communication.

Learning effective strategies for using language with precision, clarity and artistry is interrelated with learning in the other general outcomes. Students use exploratory language to discover and focus their communication (General Outcome 1). Oral, print and other media texts provide vicarious experiences and new perspectives that students use for speaking, writing and representing (General Outcome 2). Students locate, gather and organize data to communicate ideas and information (General Outcome 3). Creating and communicating with language enhance collaboration and build community (General Outcome 5).

As students use English language arts in a variety of contexts with instruction, encouragement and support, they revise and edit to clarify meaning, achieve purposes and affect audiences. In doing so, they apply the conventions of grammar, language usage, spelling, punctuation and capitalization. They develop an understanding of how language works and use the specialized vocabulary of English language arts. As well, they develop confidence and skill in sharing and responding to thoughts, ideas and experiences through informal and formal presentations.

In school and in daily life, students are required to communicate ideas and information using well-organized, clear and precise language. They use artistic language to create, to express who they are and what they feel, and to share their experiences with others in a variety of oral, print and other media texts.

It is intended that students engage in purposeful language arts activities that respect individual differences and emphasize the interrelated and mutually supportive nature of the general and specific outcomes.

4.1 Enhance and Improve
Appraise own and others’ work

ELA 8

  • share draft oral, print and other media texts in a way that will elicit useful feedback
  • evaluate how particular content features contribute to, or detract from, the overall effectiveness of own and others’ oral, print and other media texts; make and suggest revisions

ELA 9

  • share sample treatments of a topic with peers, and ask for feedback on the relative effectiveness of each
  • work collaboratively to make appropriate revisions based on feedback provided by peers

Revise and edit

ELA 8

  • revise by adding words and phrases that emphasize important ideas or create dominant impressions
  • revise to enhance sentence variety, word choice and appropriate tone
  • enhance the coherence and impact of documents, using electronic editing functions
  • use paragraph structures to demonstrate unity and coherence

ELA 9

  • revise to ensure effective introductions, consistent points of view, effective transitions between ideas and appropriate conclusions
  • revise to enhance effective transitions between ideas and maintain a consistent organizational pattern
  • revise to combine narration, description and exposition effectively

Enhance legibility

ELA 8

  • vary handwriting style and pace, depending on the context, audience and purpose
  • choose an effective format for documents, depending on the content, audience and purpose

ELA 9

  • develop personal handwriting styles appropriate for a variety of purposes
  • identify and experiment with some principles of design that enhance the presentation of texts

Expand knowledge of language

ELA 8

  • explore and explain ways that new words, phrases and manners of expression enter the language as a result of factors, such as popular culture, technology, other languages
  • infer the literal and figurative meaning of words in context, using idioms, analogies, metaphors and similes

ELA 9

  • distinguish between the denotative and connotative meaning of words, and discuss effectiveness for achieving purpose and affecting audience
  • explore the derivation and use of words, phrases and jargon, including variations in language, accent and dialect in Canadian communities and regions

Enhance artistry

ELA 8

  • experiment with figurative language, voice, sentence patterns, camera angle and music to create an impression or mood

ELA 9

  • experiment with the language and components of particular forms to communicate themes or represent the perspectives of a variety of people or characters

4.2 Attend to Conventions
Attend to grammar and usage

ELA 8

  • use words and phrases to modify, clarify and enhance ideas and descriptions in own writing
  • use a variety of simple, compound and complex sentence structures to communicate effectively, and to make writing interesting
  • use correct pronoun – antecedent agreement in own writing
  • use verb tenses consistently throughout a piece of writing

ELA 9

  • identify and use parallel structure in own writing
  • identify and use coordination, subordination, and apposition to enhance communication
  • use a variety of strategies to make effective transitions between sentences and paragraphs in own writing

Attend to spelling

ELA 8

  • develop a systematic and effective approach to studying and remembering the correct spelling of key words encountered in a variety of print and other media texts
  • use knowledge of spelling generalizations and how words are formed to spell technical terms and unfamiliar words in own writing
  • identify the use of spelling variants in print and other media texts, and discuss the effectiveness depending on audience and purpose

ELA 9

  • demonstrate the deliberate, conscientious and independent application of a variety of editing and proofreading strategies to confirm spellings in own writing
  • identify situations in which careful attention to correct spelling is especially important
  • identify and use variant spellings for particular effects, depending on audience, purpose, content and context

Attend to capitalization and punctuation

ELA 8

  • use hyphens to break words at the end of lines, and to make a new word from two related words in own writing
  • identify semicolons, dashes and hyphens when reading, and use them to assist comprehension
  • use parentheses appropriately in own writing
  • use appropriate capitalization and punctuation for referencing oral, print and other media texts

ELA 9

  • use quotation marks to distinguish words being discussed in own writing
  • use dashes to show sentence breaks or interrupted speech, where appropriate in own writing
  • know that rules for punctuation can vary, and adjust punctuation use for effect in own writing

4.3 Present and Share
Present information

ELA 8

  • plan and facilitate small group and short, whole class presentations to share information

ELA 9

  • select, organize and present information to appeal to the interests and background knowledge of various readers or audiences

Enhance presentation

ELA 8

  • present information to achieve a particular purpose and to appeal to interest and background knowledge of reader or audience

ELA 9

  • choose appropriate types of evidence and strategies to clarify ideas and information, and to convince various readers and audiences

Use effective oral and visual communication

ELA 8

  • plan and shape presentations to achieve particular purposes or effects, and use feedback from rehearsals to make modifications

ELA 9

  • integrate a variety of media and display techniques, as appropriate, to enhance the appeal, accuracy and persuasiveness of presentations

Demonstrate attentive listening and viewing

ELA 8

  • anticipate the organizational pattern of presentations, and identify important ideas and supporting details
  • use appropriate verbal and nonverbal feedback to respond respectfully

ELA 9

  • follow the train of thought, and evaluate the credibility of the presenter and the evidence provided
  • provide feedback that encourages the presenter and audience to consider other ideas and additional information
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