after act 5: critical response

Throughout the play we met and learnt a lot about several different characters. We learned their mannerisms, how they treat people, and their strengths and weaknesses. The character that we learnt about most in-depth was Marcus Brutus. We learned a lot about his strengths and weaknesses and the effect that they have on him and on the people around him.

In my opinion Brutus’ greatest strength is his selflessness and willingness to do anything necessary to fight for what he believes in.  These two characteristics helped him be successful in his fight against Julius Caesar, then Octavius Caesar and Marc Antony. If he did not fight hard and stay loyal to the cause he believed in he would not have been able to accomplish what he did. Another strong quality of Brutus’ is that he is held in high regard of the citizens of Rome and the people close to him. This quality helped to lead him to success because it made it possible for him to have people join him and fight alongside him for his cause. The following that he had and the trust that his friends had in him was a very large reason he was as successful as he was, and put up as big of a fight as he did.

With all of the success he had he still ended up getting defeated in the end. As tragic as this was and as great as Brutus is he still has lots of weaknesses that contributed to that big failure, and all of the small ones along the way. His biggest strength of selflessness is also one of his biggest weaknesses. Since he is always concerned with the common good he tends to not deal with his own issues, he just lets them progressively build up. This lead to failure because although selflessness is very important it shouldn’t be all-consuming, and if Brutus had thought about himself a little bit more he would have been so much more successful. This weakness also compromises some of his relationships, such as his one with Portia.  Brutus left to help the common good meanwhile Portia was at home going mad in his absence, if he were to think of his own relationship even a little bit that could have been avoidable.

Brutus is a very strong character with a personality and values that many people share with him. Many of his strengths and weaknesses reminds us of our own similar ones. His way of viewing everyone as equals is a huge strength and something that almost everyone tries to do everyday. The fight for equality right now in our world is a very pressing issue and we saw Brutus join this fight when he told Portia to get up off her knees to speak to him so that he wasn’t talking down on her. It also reminds us of our weaknesses that we share with him. Such as letting all of our problems build up inside of us. This is very relate-able among many people because it is such a common thing that we as human beings do. We let our problems build up inside of us until we can’t handle it anymore and begin to act out because of them, which is exactly what we see Brutus do in the play on many occasions. One of these being when he is around Portia and she senses something is bothering him and gets him to talk to her about, or at least try.

With important characters like Brutus we get attached to them and feel things for them. We feel good things towards them, but we also pity them and feel regret for them. The biggest instance of this happening was during the battle and Cassius’ death. We pity Brutus because he lost his most loyal friend, and he will no longer be able to win the battle. Then we feel regret because Cassius’ death could have been so avoidable, and without his death our beloved Brutus would also still be alive.

The end of the play was difficult for me as the audience because there were so many things that could have been easily fixed so that Brutus and Cassius were victorious. It was hard to lose such an amazing character as Brutus but he wouldn’t have been himself without his strengths and weaknesses, they make him who he is. So in the end everything happened exactly how it should have and Brutus died the way he was supposed to and stuck with his character until the very end.


This is a triumph for Jack and Ralph because they accomplished something together. It was a negative and violent triumph because they were destroying the rock and using it as a bomb to harm the forest. This happened on page 28. The reason that they are becoming more destructive may be because of the “unknown force” this unknown force is blamed on God destroying the earth, but it is really just the children copying what they have been seeing at home from all of the adults in their lives during the war. This triumph by Jack and Ralph was much different than the positive one on page 15. This first triumph belonged to Piggy and Ralph and it was a triumph because they used teamwork to protect the sapling, and save the shell. Rather than using teamwork to destroy an object and anything in its path. The change of what is viewed as a triumph is giving us a preview of the negative and very violent turn that this novel is going to take.

after act 4 personal response

When you are about to play a game against a really tough team, a team you fear is better than your own team you are scared and nervous of what the outcome will be. The goal in every game is to win, but in high pressure games it is much harder to envision that happening. Because of this it is important that most of the team is able to pump up, motivate, and bring up the energy of the rest of the team or group. In situations like this it is also important that the team is able to take in that positive energy and carry it throughout the match.

Every team and every person is going to get pumped up and motivated by different things. Some teams or individuals work better with constructive criticism and others can’t quite take that and need to be spoken to differently. All teams also calm down or become less nervous in different ways. For some just taking a deep breath and hoping for the best works, but for others they need a lot more visualization and motivation.

When I am faced with talking to a team mate or my entire team before a match of any kind I try and focus on the positives, and what we know we can bring into that match. This is usually saying things like we have to stay positive and have fun, but also do what we came here to do which is play as hard as we can and hopefully win. If we are playing against a team I am familiar with I also try to point out their weaknesses so that my team can keep those in mind and use them to their advantage during the match.

On the other hand when I am being talked to by a team mate or coach before a match I like to be told what to do. I find this very helpful because if I know what is needed from me to beat that team I am going to do everything I can to do just that. During the game, or at breaks in the game I also find it helpful when I am told what I am doing wrong, so that when I go back on the court or field or ice I can try to fix it. Finally I also find it very helpful when my team mates are able to help me stay positive when I begin to get down on myself.

Before important matches it is easy to let the nerves take over and loose sight of what needs to be focused on, but if someone on your team is able to remind you of that before the match that may be the best and most important thing that could be said

Fr. Roger visit (Nov.17)

Sacrifice is defined as: an act of slaughtering an animal or person or surrendering a possession as an offering to God or to a divine or supernatural figure. This definition shows how broad of a thing sacrifice can be defined as. It is anywhere from being so extreme as to kill a living thing for a purpose all the way to being as simple as sacrificing an extra curricular activity for school work. Sacrifice means something different to everybody, and everyone has different things that they are willing to make sacrifices for.

The main reason that we sacrifice is because the thing we are willing to sacrifice has a lesser value than the thing we are sacrificing for. This value that you base your decision on has very little to do with material reasons, but with emotional or spiritual ones. How you feel on the inside plays a huge role when you are faced with having to make a sacrifice. Sacrifices can be big or small, but no matter the size of the you don’t make a sacrifice for someone or something that you don’t care about at all.

We have to come to know what we think is worth sacrificing for. If you are not aware of what you are making a sacrifice for, or you have made one that you wish you didn’t that is truly no one else’s fault but yours. Although not all sacrifices have to be super big and meaningful they should all be made knowing that the thing you gave up you are never going to be able to get back. This is the main reason why knowing what you are willing to make sacrifices for is so important.

More often than not the sacrifices that people make for other people are not ones that they end up regretting in the future. One of the reasons for this is the fact that there is often so much thought and emotion put into these sacrifices. You become very close with the other person when a sacrifice of any kind has taken place, this is because you are giving up something whether it be a material thing or something of yourself to another person knowing you are never going to get it back. For something this important to take place with so much emotion and feeling attached it would be hard for a person to feel regret about it, no matter how things with that person end up to be like in the future.

I believe that everyone makes small sacrifices all the time in everything they do, and I think that sacrifice is an important part of who we are. Sacrifice shows great selflessness which is very important and needed at the right time, so we should do everything we can to continue to make sacrifices for the causes and people that we believe in.

after act 4 critical response

I believe that Cassius has changed since the first half of the play because he has become less shrewd and more noble. He has not been hiding his feelings as much, or being sneaky about everything he is doing. At the beginning of the play Cassius always said things behind people’s backs, but when he felt angry with Brutus in act 4 he just walked right up to him and stated his issue right to Brutus’ face in front of everyone else that was there. Another time we saw that he has changed from the beginning of the play was when him and Brutus had their argument about whether or not to march to Philippi and meet Mark Antony and Octavius, or wait and let them come to them. The Cassius that we knew at the beginning of the play would have wanted to march and meet them as soon as possible, but the Cassius that we know now wanted to stay at the camp and wait. It seems like Cassius has changed a lot and became a better person, but in the beginning of the play he said himself that he gets close to people then stabs them in the back so I don’t think we should entirely believe and trust this new Cassius just yet.

Brutus’ reaction to the news of Portia’s death does surprise me because their love seemed so deep, even if Brutus is a very noble stoic when you are that close to a person and they die I would expect that you would be more affected. I didn’t think he would have been able to keep all of those emotions under control or just pent-up inside of him. We assume that he was writing about his true feelings after, and maybe letting out some more of his anger or frustration about it by himself. As the audience we want to think he is doing these things, but we will never really know. Throughout the whole scene where Cassius and Brutus argue Brutus was already aware that Portia had died. The fact that he didn’t bring it up earlier or seem more bothered throughout the scene also surprised and bothered me. I expected more from Brutus, and Portia deserved more from him.

I think that Antony and Octavius are likely to succeed in their battle with Brutus and Cassius because they seem to have more man power and more confidence. Brutus and Cassius had to flee Rome after the assassination took place, so they likely did not have a lot of time to get all of their resources and soldiers together. Octavius and Antony had much more time to get everything together while still being right in Rome. The confidence that Antony and Octavius seem to have is also making it seem very likely that they will defeat Brutus and Cassius. I do not want Octavius and Antony to be victorious, but it just seems very unlikely that they will lose this battle.

act 3 review questions

 1. By what means is the suspense increased as Caesar goes towards the Capitol?

As Caesar heads towards the Capitol the suspense increases because the audience is just waiting for the assassination to happen. It also is suspenseful because as they are all walking with Caesar to the Capitol knowing very well what they are going to do, and Caesar doesn’t suspect what is coming to him at all.. This was suspenseful because it leaves the audience wondering if someone is going to let something slip to make Caesar find out.

2. In the Popilius Lena incident how is Brutus made to appear in a better light than Cassius?

Brutus is made to appear in a better light, because Poplius knows that Brutus is in it for the common good so he wishes him good luck and hopes he succeeds, but says nothing to Cassius. This shows that he can tell that Cassius is in it for personal and selfish reasons.

3. “Whom the gods would destroy, they first make mad.” How is this statement applicable in the closing minutes of Caesar’s life?

This statement is applicable in the last minutes of Caesars life because he refers to himself as basically a god and being as constant as the north star. This is Caesars hubris.

4. How and why does Shakespeare make Caesar especially unappealing to us just before his assassination?

He makes Caesars speech the most unappealing to most likely show the audience more reason for him to be dead, and make us realize that the conspirators are doing the right thing. It also makes us not feel bad for him, when a person acts like this it doesn’t make the audience want to feel sad for them.

5. What words uttered by Brutus in the confusion after Caesar’s death best indicate the reason for his having joined the conspiracy?

During his funeral speech Brutus says: “Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.” This is showing that he truly succeeding in killing Caesar for the common good. In this quote he is saying that he loved and valued Caesar but believed that he would ruin Rome so he had to make a sacrifice because he valued his country more.

6. What was the significance of the conspirators dipping their hands in Caesar’s blood?

The point of this was to make the act look more like a sacrifice, like Brutus intended it to be. The problem is that so many of the plebs will not understand this and if they do they will not respect it as much as many stoics would.

7. How does Shakespeare reveal new depths to Antony’s character in the assassination scene?

The new depths begin to be revealed when he so easily goes away with Trebonius ‘for donuts’. We thought that Antony caught on to what the conspirators were doing and would do something about it, but instead he just left. He appears to be clueless, or maybe even thankful that other people are killing Caesar for him so he doesn’t have to do it. The audience is then very surprised and second guessing everything they thought they knew about this character.

8. Upon what prophecy has the plot of the play been built down to the point where Caesar is killed? Around what new prophecy uttered in this scene is the second half of the play likely to be built?

It has been built around the prophecy that the soothsayer gives very early on telling Caesar to beware the ides of march, which turns out to be the day that he is killed. He gives this prophecy during the Feast of Lupercal and the ides of March are not too long after that.

9. Select at least two eulogistic remarks by Antony which reveals Caesar in a light distinctly different from that in which the conspirators viewed him. Do you think that public men of today are regarded with such a divergence of opinion as was Caesar?

1. Antony quotes that Caesar is noble. This is obviously showing Antony’s definition of noble is different from others. He says Brutus’ honor is bad compared to Caesars.
2. Antony tries to say that Caesar bringing slaves home shows how good he was. He does this in persuading the crowd to go against Brutus and the conspirators and make it seem as a murder.

10. Contrast the respective attitudes of Brutus and Cassius towards Antony in the latter part of Scene I. What evidence is there in the scene that Cassius’ attitude is justified?

The attitudes that these men have towards Antony would have changed by now, because his true colors are starting to show now that Caesar is no longer in the picture. Cassius’ attitude is definitely justified now, and I believe that Antony is going to be even worse than Cassius imagined.

11. What significance do you attach to the announcement at the end of the scene that Octavius is nearing Rome?

The announcement of Octavius nearing Rome is mainly there to create suspense and make the audience ask questions about what is going to happen when he gets there. It is also going to make Antony frightened because he quite obviously doesn’t want him there.

12. Write out (preferably blank verse) Cassius’ speech to the mob as you think he might have delivered it in the “other street.”

I think that Cassius would have echoed Brutus speech to be identical as he would have said it. But I think that he then left with Brutus and didn’t echo Antony’s speech. Brutus didn’t say that he could himself say a speech, so this is why he did that.

13. Write a precis of Brutus’ address to the crowd. What qualities are evident in Brutus’ speech that are lost in a precis?

Brutus’ funeral speech is very surprising to us since his speech does not follow the Shakespearean style. It looks raw, unfinished, broken, and improvised. It is expected from Brutus that he would have a very well thought out speech that would make everyone believe him completely even if they are only doing what they are all told. It should have been a powerful speech, but instead it was pathetic.

14. Why did Shakespeare have the crowd express approval at the end of Brutus’ speech?

He did this to show that the plebs are truly going to do anything that they are told to do. Brutus’ speech was extremely uninspiring so this just shows us that no matter what he would have said they would have had the same reaction.

15. Trace the stages by which Antony in his speech gradually turned the mob against the conspirators.

1. Antony questioned the plebs on why they attended the parade. The only answer given was because they were told too. If they will always do what they are told, why shouldn’t they listen to Antony’s plan of revenge

2. Even though Brutus said a few minutes ago that the assassination was a sacrifice, he also refused the crown. Antony is now standing before them saying that the death of Caesar was a murderous act and war should strike out against the conspirators. The commoners know nothing else, but to do as they are told. Since Antony understands this he will use it to his advantage and get them on his side.

3. Lastly, Mark Antony tells the plebs that he has Caesar’s will. Us, as the audience, wonder if this could be true, but in a few short lines we justify that it is not. The clueless commoners stay intrigued in the rest of his speech just so they can find out what it is Caesar has in his ‘fake’ will.

16. What are some of the devices – other than that of argument itself – by which Antony influenced his listeners?

The device that is used to influence the listeners is the copy of Caesars will that he just happens to have, which I believe to be fake.

17. “The behavior of the mob in this scene of the speeches links naturally with its behavior in Act I, Scene I.” Discuss.

Their behavior relates back to their behavior in act one because it is just one again showing us that they are influenced extremely easily, and that they will do what they are told. Shakespeare almost makes it seem like the plebs truly can not make decisions on their own, and that they would be extremely lost without someone telling them what to do.

18. “The dramatic crisis is that point in a play where the rising action ceases and the falling action begins.” Where in Scene I or Scene 2 of Act 3 would you say the dramatic crisis occurs? Why do modern plays have this point much later than the mechanical center of the play?

The dramatic crisis was Antony’s speech while he was by himself on stage. It showed us his true colors. I believe modern plays have this point happen much later because they are saving it till the end of the play where it will be the last dramatic part instead of just moving on with the play.

19. What dramatic purposes are served by the third scene of Act 3?

We are seen the influences on Antony’s speech. We also see the commoners are very easily able to change there decision depending on what is better for there work days and that is it. They act one and are influence by one another decisions. I believe they just change there answer to the one whoever talking to them because they don’t have a say in anything and are scared to voice their opinions.

act 2 review questions

1. Why do the incidents of Scene I take place at night and on the last night before the Ides of March?

This scene takes place at night because it adds to the dramatic effect, it makes what they are doing seem very mysterious and secretive. The reason it takes place the night before the ides of March is so that the conspirators are somewhat prepared, but not so much so that they begin to overthink it or doubt themselves.

2. Into what four divisions can Scene I be naturally divided?

Scene 1 can be naturally divided into these four sections:

– When Brutus is alone on stage, talking to the audience and telling them the full truth of what his thoughts are on the whole situation.
– When the conspirators have their late night meeting to make their plan for the next day.
– When Portia confronts Brutus and they have their very important talk where we learn that Portia is the noblest Roman.
– When Ligarius shows up late to Brutus’ house and instead of finishing his conversation with Portia, he leaves with Ligarius to meet up with the other conspirators.
3. What evidence is there in Scene I that Brutus has been much perturbed about the problem of Caesar?

It is clear that Brutus is still perturbed by this idea because if he was sure of the decision he was making, he wouldn’t be doubting himself so much and trying to convince himself continuously that he is truly doing it for the common good. More evidence of his preturbedness about the act he is going to commit is the fact that he is having nightmares still, leading all the way up to the night before this assassination is planned to take place.

4. By what line of reasoning does Brutus justify his decision to take part in the murder of Caesar? Do you believe his reasoning is sound or faulty?

He justifies killing Caesar by saying: “It must be by his death: and, for my part, I know no personal cause to spurn at him, but for the general.” I believe that this reasoning is sound, it shows us all the way through even after the act is done with that Brutus was in it for the general good. He stuck with his one goal of not letting it be for personal causes and he succeeded in that.

5. Write down the talk, as you think it might have taken place, that went on between Brutus and Cassius while the other conspirators discussed the point of sunrise. (Use blank verse preferably, and try to catch the style of Shakespeare).

Cassius: Brutus, we has’t some issues we needeth to break with.

Brutus: What wouldst those beest dear Cassius?

Cassius: First, the issue of shrewd Mark Antony. I bethink we shouldst receiveth did rid of that gent ‘long with Caesar, I feareth what that gent is capable of.

Brutus: That gent is not to beest feared, liketh I hath said that gent is but a limb of Caesar.

Cassius: Well as I trusteth thy judegment although I may disagreeth we shall doth as thee prithee and leaveth Antony un did harm.

Brutus: Thanketh thee cassius, we needeth to maketh sure we art v’ry did prepare f’r what is going to befall tom’rrow.

Cassius: Aye, I am eft and did prepare f’r the act we art about to commit. I just did want to maketh sure yond thou art eft, and acknown of what is going to befall.

Brutus: I am as well and I has’t faith in the group of men we has’t gath’r’d to holp us.

Cassius: V’ry well, alloweth us returneth to the group.

6. On what matters do you find Brutus and Cassius not in agreement after Brutus joins the conspiracy? How are their characters further revealed by the attitudes on these matters? How is the introduction of these points of dispute concerned with the development of the plot? Why do the conspirators permit Brutus to have his way on these issues?

The first issue that they have is the issue of taking an oath, Cassius wants the men to have to take an oath but Brutus thinks it is unnecessary and that they should just be able to trust the men. The shows that Brutus trust’s too easily and that maybe Cassius doesn’t trust these men enough. The second issue that these men disagree on is the issue of Mark Antony, Cassius wants to kill him along with Caesar because he believes him to be shrewd whereas Brutus thinks he is of no threat to them. This again relates back to Brutus’ problem of trusting and believing people too easily. The conspirators choose to agree with Brutus on these issues and they do this because they view him as their wise leader, who will know the best which may not be the case.

7. What dramatic purposes are served by the introduction of the conversation (a) between Brutus and Portia, (b) between Brutus and Caius Ligarius?

a) Conversation between Brutus and Portia

Shows trust and equality in their relationship, when he tells her to rise from her knees before they continue talking.
Shows that Portia knows how to use reason to convince her husband to tell her what is bothering him, instead of just nagging and ordering him.
The way Portia talks to Brutus shows us her respect for him, and how different she is from Calpurnia.
b) Conversation between Brutus and Ligarius

Shows us how distracted or unfocused Brutus can get because he just leaves Portia
Shows us that Ligarius is really believes in what the Conspirators are doing because he wants to be a part of it so much that he came to join even though he is very ill.
8. What is gained by reverting to the storm background in Scene 2?

The storm adds a lot of suspense and is really a crucial part of the play because it ties into so many things that are going to happen, and also brings to life many parts of Calpurnia’s dream.

9. Where in Scene 2 do you find evidence of Caesar’s superstition, arrogance, fatalism, vacillation, susceptibility to flattery?

We see his superstition when he does the sacrificial ceremony of the bull after Calpurnia tells him of her dreams
We see his arrogance when he tells Calpurnia that no one would ever hurt him when they saw his face, basically saying he is better than everyone and nobody would dare to hurt him.
His fatalism is shown when it is said that there is no reason for him not to go to work
We see his vacillation when he decides to go to work after he already told Calpurnia that he was going to stay home
Finally we see his susceptibility to flattery when Decius comes to pick him up for work and he automatically changes his mind about staying home after Decius says a couple nice things to him, and makes him feel special.
10. Compare the characters of Portia and Calpurnia.

Portia is very reasonable and understandable whereas Calpurnia is just very worried and naggy. They both have the same goal to keep their husbands safe but Portia went about it the right way that made her husband respect her whereas Calpurnia just begged Caesar to stay home not expecting and respect from him. Portia is a strong woman with a husband that respects her and treats her as an equal and Calpurnia’s husband just treats her as an object that he can do what he wants with and that doesn’t have a valid opinion or say in anything. In several ways Portia succeeds where Calpurnia fails.

11. Discuss the thought in Caesar’s speech, beginning, “Cowards die many times before their deaths”.

By saying this he is saying that when you are brave you just die when you die, but on the other hand a part of you dies every time you do something cowardly. When you are a coward you aren’t living life to it’s full potential because you fear so many things. Cowards fear death, but they are already dying because they are cowards.

12. Is it good drama for Caesar to be represented at the end of Scene 2 as being so friendly towards those who are shortly to assassinate him?

Yes, this is very good drama. By adding this is shows that the conspirators succeeded in keeping this a secret from Caesar and it really shows the audience that they are going to pull it off. It also makes the scene where he is killed much more full of betrayal and surprise because Caesar truly didn’t know it was coming, he thought they were going to crown him their king.

13. If you were producing the play, would you include or omit the Artemidorus Scene? Why?

At this point in the play I would omit this scene. Caesar never even got the letter he wrote so it truly served no purpose other than to make the audience curious, and let them create theories of how he may have learned the information that was in the letter.

14. Define “suspense.” How is the suspense of Scene 4 increased over that of Scene 3?

Suspense: a state or feeling of excited or anxious uncertainty about what may happen.

The suspense is increased because it opens by showing Portia in a state of panic very worried about Brutus right after we learn of the letter Artemidorus has wrote to Caesar.

15. Aside from the increased suspense in Scene 4 over that of Scene 3, why could this scene be less justifiably omitted from a stage presentation of the play than Scene 3?

Scene 4 is more important than scene 3 because scene 4 answers a lot of our questions and makes us curious about what is going to happen next, it also gives us new feelings about Portia and her relationship with Brutus. Whereas other than the suspense it creates scene 3 just tells us things we already knew or could have figured out.

act 2, scene 1 critical response

Cassius: Brutus, we has’t some issues we needeth to break with.

Brutus: What wouldst those beest dear Cassius?

Cassius: First, the issue of shrewd Mark Antony. I bethink we shouldst receiveth did rid of that gent ‘long with Caesar, I feareth what that gent is capable of.

Brutus: That gent is not to beest feared, liketh I hath said that gent is but a limb of Caesar.

Cassius: Well as I trusteth thy judegment although I may disagreeth we shall doth as thee prithee and leaveth Antony un did harm.

Brutus: Thanketh thee cassius, we needeth to maketh sure we art v’ry did prepare f’r what is going to befall tom’rrow.

Cassius: Aye, I am eft and did prepare f’r the act we art about to commit. I just did want to maketh sure yond thou art eft, and acknown of what is going to befall.

Brutus: I am as well and I has’t faith in the group of men we has’t gath’r’d to holp us.

Cassius: V’ry well, alloweth us returneth to the group.

act 2, quiz hints

1. Who says “whet”? What does it mean?

Brutus says: “Since Cassius first did whet me against Caesar, I have not slept.” Whet means to sharpen the blade of a knife or weapon, so by saying this Brutus is implying that Cassius has sharpened Brutus’ sword for Caesar. Brutus most likely already disliked Caesar and wanted to harm him but Cassius is bringing that part of him out even more, and making his reasons to kill Caesar more clear.

2. What is Portia’s “success” and Calpurnia’s “failure”?

Portia’s success that she was able to show reason in her argument with her husband and was able to get something out of it and learned that there truly was something wrong. She was also able to have her husband respect her and treat her as an equal rather than just something that belongs to him. Calpurnia was trying to accomplish the same thing as Portia which was to keep her husband safe but she went about it the wrong way and ended up failing. She was whiny and nagging him and instead of trying to figure out a solution with Caesar she just wanted a quick fix which would be him staying home, and making him lie that he is just sick. This would not make him respect her nor make him want to listen to her.

3. Examples of irony.

  • The letters to Brutus from Cassius telling him how great he was were ironic because Brutus thought they were actually legit from admirers but we as the audience knew they were a scam.
  • It is also ironic how Antony is just playing stupid and seems to be nothing but a common laugher, but we can see that there is more to him and have lots of reason to believe he is truly a shrewd contriver. Another part of this is that Cassius is the one who calls him a shrewd contriver, which he is himself.
  • Another ironic thing is how Decius is telling Caesar how it is okay for him to go to work, but we really know that he is going to get assassinated at work if he goes.
  • Caesar is trusting all of these people to make good decisions in his life for him, but really they are just planning to end is life which is also very ironic.

4. Explain the ladder reference.

Brutus says (to the audience): “That lowliness is young ambitions leader.” This is referencing a ladder by saying that leaders will often climb on other people or use other people to get to the top and become the best but once they are up there they won’t let anyone else up with them and will push anyone down that tries. This is what Caesar is doing, and if he gets to the top he will be extremely dangerous and nearly unstoppable. Brutus also imply’s that this kind of system is a broken one, and you shouldn’t have to use or step on other people to become a leader.

5. Re-read the Brutus speech where he mentions sacrifice and murder. What is his error in judgement?

Brutus’ main error in judgement is that he is not thinking about what will happen to him after this whole thing is done. He is the Chief Magistrate (judge) but if he is on trial someone else will take his place, but there will be no one to replace him that is as stoic as he is. He is the only judge who would see it as Brutus believes it is: a sacrifice for the common good. The judge who replaces him will think of Brutus as a criminal and see this act as murder.
6. Examples of Anachronism.

Anachronism: a thing belonging or appropriate to a period other than that in which it exists, especially a thing that is conspicuously old-fashioned.

  • The clock, when it strikes in the town center. There was no such thing as clocks in this time period.
  • “Their hats are pluck’d about their ears”. People didn’t wear hats in 44 BC, so this would have been very unlikely.

7. What do Trebonius and Brutus say about Mark Antony? Stoic or Epicurean?

When Cassius mentions that they should also fear Antony and possibly take him out as well Brutus just replies by saying: “Alas! good Cassius, do not think of him.” He also says that if Antony is truly loyal to Caesar he will be a good roman and just kill himself, and if not he is too much of an epicurean to do anything at all. Trebonius automatically agrees with Brutus and seconds that they not worry about Antony because he is not going to be a threat.. he is too much of a common laugh er. By what Brutus and Trebonius say about Antony it is clear that they think he is extremely epicurean.

We know completely how Brutus thinks so we know that this is his true opinion, but we are not yet familiar with Trebonius so we don’t know if this is what he truly thinks of Antony or if it is just an act to spare him or cover something else up.

8. Who are the men gathered to take an oath?

The men who gathered to take an oath are the conspirators, and they are:

  • Brutus
  • Cassius
  • Casca
  • Decius
  • Cinna
  • Metellus Cimber
  • Trebonius

Caius Ligarius is also part of the conspiracy, but he was not there to take the oath. He arrived late.

9. Who arrives late to take an oath, why?

Caius Ligarius was the conspirator that arrived late and he arrived late because he is very sick and weak. We can also guess that he is quite old, but no matter his condition he wants to end Caesars rein before he dies himself.

10. What is a more interesting reason for Antony showing up late at Caesar’s?

  • A more interesting reason than him being out partying is that he was maybe out himself all night planning his own attack on Caesar, like the shrewd contriver that Cassius believes him to be.
  • Another reason he could have been late is because maybe he was also up all night will nightmares like Calpurnia.

11. Give a good theory for how Artemidorus knows what he knows.

My theory for Artemidorus knowing what he knows is that he started to suspect that something was fishy with the people involved in the conspiracy or noticed one of their conversations, so he decided to investigate further and began spying on them to learn enough information to tell and warn Caesar.

Another theory is that someone who is part of the conspiracy is not completely loyal, and has possibly been telling Artemidorus so that he could warn Caesar.

flattery: act 2, scene 2

Have you ever been flattered by another person or group of people? What were the circumstances and how did you react? Explain how you think flattery can be a positive influence on a person and how it might be a negative one.

I have been flattered in the past on things such as my clothes, or things I say, or even things I do. Flatters come in all different forms from all different kinds of people and they mean something different to everyone. I have gotten simple flattery such as someone complimenting me on my outfit or hair that day, and I have also gotten more meaningful ones such as someone really complimenting me and talking to me about something that I have done. When someone flatters you in some place like a hallway at school it is less personal and easier to just say thank you and move on, but when it is more one on one the compliment really means more and it makes the person being flattered think more about it.

Flattery can affect people both positively and negatively. When someone is having a rough day and someone flatters them it has a positive effect on them because it makes them think about something good instead of focusing on all of the bad things that may be going on. It is also a positive influence on people that don’t think the best of themselves because when someone else points out something good about them it will make them more confident knowing that there are good things about them. There is also the negative ways that flattery can impact people. It can make some people think to highly of themselves or make them think that they are above everyone else and everybody loves them, but it can also be negative when people don’t accept it or appreciate it at all. Although there are these two polar opposites there is also a happy medium with flattery. You can still be flattered on your good days and not let it get to your head too much, you can be thankful for it and just move on.