Food Basics Glossary

appliance: a piece of equipment that is powered by electricity, gas, or propane

 

bake: cook food using an oven

 

beat: rapidly stir ingredients using a spoon, whisk, or mixer

 

blend: mix two or more ingredients together thoroughly until smooth

 

boil: heat liquids until they rapidly bubble at the surface to release steam

 

brown: use a skillet to sauté meats or vegetables until they turn brown

 

chill: refrigerate food until it is cold

 

chop: cut food into pieces using a knife or food processor

 

coat: cover food with flour, crumbs, or batter

 

combine: stir different ingredients together

 

cooking temperature: the temperature the cooking appliance must be set at to cook the food properly

 

For example, “Oven: 200°C” or “Set the stove to low heat.”

 

cooking time: the estimated amount of time it will take to cook a food thoroughly

 

The cooking time is often given in a range, such as 10 to 12 minutes.

 

cool: allow the temperature of food to drop after cooking

 

cream: blend sugar with margarine, butter, or shortening until it is creamy and smooth

 

cross-contamination: the transfer of infectious bacteria from one place to another

 

cube: cut food so that it has six equal sides

 

cut in: use a pastry blender or two knives to combine solid fats into flour

 

dice: cut food into small cubes

 

drain: eliminate excess liquid from food using a strainer or colander

 

fold in: gently turn food into itself using a spatula or a wooden spoon

 

fry: cook food in fat until browned or cooked through

 

garnish: decorate food with a small colourful food or herb when serving

 

grate: shred food into tiny pieces by rubbing it against a grater

 

grease: spray or rub a pan with oil to prevent sticking

 

infectious bacteria: bacteria that enter the digestive system via contaminated food

 

ingredients: the foods listed in a recipe

 

Ingredients are typically listed in the order that they should be added to the recipe.

 

knead: alternately press and fold dough with hands until dough is smooth

 

method of a recipe: a step-by-step procedure for how to prepare the food

 

mince: chop food into tiny pieces

 

mix: stir different ingredients together

 

mould: micro-organisms that provide visible clues of food spoilage that can cause illness

 

pare: peel off the outside covering of food using a paring knife or peeler

 

peel: remove the outer skin of vegetables and fruit with a knife or peeler

 

preheat: turn appliances on before putting the food in to cook to ensure the proper cooking temperature is reached

 

quantities: the specific amounts for each ingredient listed in the recipe

 

Quantities can be listed by volume in millilitres (mL), or by weight in grams (g).

 

recipe: a set of directions for preparing food or beverages

 

recipe in active format: ingredients are listed in the step-by-step method

 

recipe in narrative format: ingredients are listed in a paragraph that combines the ingredients with the method

 

recipe in standard format: ingredients are listed in the order they are used

 

roll: use a rolling pin to flatten dough

 

sauté: cook food in hot fat in a skillet

 

season: flavour food with salt, pepper, and other seasonings

 

sift: shake dry ingredients through a sieve or sifter to remove lumps and add air

 

simmer: heat liquids until they bubble under the surface but are not hot enough to come to a boil

 

slice: cut into thin flat pieces

 

stir: move food in a circular motion with a wooden spoon to combine ingredients or to distribute heat while cooking

 

stir-fry: fry cut meat and vegetables at high temperatures in small amounts of oil

 

toss: combine ingredients by gently throwing them together

 

toxin: a substance that is poisonous to humans

 

utensil: a kitchen tool that performs a food preparation task, such as measuring, cutting, mixing, cooking, or baking

 

variation: a small preparation change that you make while preparing a recipe to change the final product, such as an added ingredient

 

volume: the amount of space an ingredient takes up

 

Volume is measured in dry and liquid measuring cups and measuring spoons.

 

weight: how heavy an ingredient is when measured on a scale

 

whip: beat ingredients rapidly with a wire whisk or electric mixer to add air and increase volume

 

yeast: micro-organisms that provide visible clues of food spoilage that can cause illness

 

yield: the amount of food that the recipe makes

 

Yield can be listed by volume, such as 250 mL or 1 cup, or as servings, such as “Makes 12 muffins” or “Makes 4 servings.”

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